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Nahoga Mahala Moniac 

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Nahoga Mahala Moniac
1770 - 1863
Nahoga Mahala Moniac was born about 1770 in Eufaula, Alabama and died about 1863 in Hickory Ground, Alabama. Dates for birth and death are estimated. She lived to be about 93 years old.

Research has produced two possible mothers for James B. Ward. Some say his mother was Elizabeth Ward from South Carolina. Others believe it was Nahoga (Mahala) Moniac, a Creek Indian, who was possibly also known as Nancy Knight. The name 'Mahala' originates from the Muskogee word for 'teacher' which is Mvhaya and pronounced muh-hah-yah. The fact that the descendants of James B. Ward are found living in areas still practicing Creek Indian ways, leads us to believe Nahoga was his mother. Please note that documents supporting each mother are posted below.

Nahoga Ward is listed on the Eastern Creek rolls as number 11032. She was a Muskogee Indian and a member of the Wind Clan. She married a fur and cattle trader named John (or Jack) Ward. After her husband died, she was awarded land in the Hickory Ground area which is now in Elmo County, AL. Hickory Ground was originally near a large Creek Indian town named "Eufaula" and part of Coosa County, AL. At the time of her death, Indian Agent Hawkins recorded the names of two children who were living with her (John and Susan).

Nahoga's parents are believed to be William Dixon Moniac (1759-1846) and Polly Colbert (1753-?). Her father, William Moniac, was a trader from the Netherlands. He traveled with a tribe of Indians moving into AL from TN and had several wives. His first was Sehoy III (daughter of SehoyII and the Tuckabatchee chief).

Nahoga's mother, Polly, was the daughter of Chief William Colbert (?-1826, half-Chickasaw named Chooshemataha) and Tuskegee Woman (a member of the Wind Clan).

If James B. Ward’s parents were the Wards from Spartanburg, SC, then his mother was Elizabeth Ward (1755-1829), the wife of Nathan Ward (born about 1758). Her husband died before 1810 leaving her a widow. Her sons were Samuel, Solomon, Nathan, James and John. James and John may have been twins. By the time she is in her early 70s, she is living in Wilkinson County, GA where she was dismissed from the Mt. Nebo Baptist Church about the time her children move to Florida. For a detailed review of this research, please see the excellent work published by Jerry Merritt.
Records
Census1/1/1790 SC (Spartanburg County) 20 yrs old 
This information, while true, may NOT apply to our Nahoga Moniac.  On page 7: The family of Nathan Ward consists of one free white male more than 16 years old, 4 males under 16 years old, 4 free white females and no other free white persons or slaves. 
Additional information about Spartanburg County, SC around 1790: Click here to see a map from this timeperiod.  
Census1/1/1800 SC (Spartanburg County) 30 yrs old 
This information, while true, may NOT apply to our Nahoga Moniac.  On page 11: The family of Nathan Ward consists of 3 free white males under 10 years old, 2 between the ages of 10-15, 2 between the ages of 16-25, and 1 who is 45 years old or older. One free white female is between 16-25 and the other is 45 years old or older.  
Census1/1/1810 SC (Spartanburg County) 40 yrs old 
This information, while true, may NOT apply to our Nahoga Moniac.  Found on page 35: The family of Elizabeth Ward consists of 2 free white males between the ages of 10-15, one free white female under the age of 10, another between the ages of 26-44, and her self who is over 45 years old. Elizabeth appears to be a widow as there are no men her age. 
Census1/1/1820 GA (Wilkinson County) 50 yrs old 
This information, while true, may NOT apply to our Nahoga Moniac.  On page 19: The family of James Ward consists of one free white male between the age of 16-25, one free white female between the age of 16-25, and one female over 45 years old. It appears that Elizabeth Ward is now living with her youngest son, James and his wife. 
Additional information about Wilkinson County, GA around 1820: Created in 1803 from newly acquired lands ceded by the Creek Indians in 1802 and increased in 1805. Later, this area is divided to form Laurens, Telfair, and Twiggs counties. 
Other4/8/1826 GA (Wilkinson County) 56 yrs old 
This information, while true, may NOT apply to our Nahoga Moniac.  The Mt. Nebo Baptist Church in Wilkinson County records the dismissal of Elizabeth Ward on 8th Apr. 1826. Most likely she was leaving Wilkerson to live with her sons who were in Jackson Co, FL. 
Census1/1/1832 Hickory Ground Town AL  62 yrs old 
Recorded as family #67 (last entry on list): Na-ho-go Ward's family consists of 2 females and 13 slaves (a total of 15 people).  
Land Deed5/14/1840 Bureau of Inidan Affairs AL  70 yrs old 
Na-ho-go Ward, one of the Creek Tribe of Indians by virtue of a Treaty between the U.S. and said Creek Tribe of Indians made the 24th day of March 1832, became entitled to the East half of Section eight, in Township eighteen, of Range nineteen East in the Tallapoosa Land District of Alabama, containing 380 acres. The sale of this land to Eli E. Gaither is recorded in 1840. 

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Click on any of the News, Events, or Discoveries buttons above to see historical things that happened during Nahoga Moniac's life. These are only some of the major events that affected the life and times of Nahoga, her family, and friends. For example, Nahoga is 3 years old when Angered by the tea tax of 1767 and the British East India Company's monopoly on tea trade, the independent New England colonial merchants dump the precious cargo overboard into the Boston harbor. This incident is called the Boston Tea Party.
AgeDateEvent
32 1802 Georgia formally cedes western claims for its southern boundary at the 31st parallel -- which will become the north western border of FL and southern border of AL.
33 1803 Between 1803 and 1811 a horse trail is established connecting Milledgeville, Georgia to Fort Stoddert, American outpost north of Mobile. This is expanded into a road and called The Federal Road by 1811.
35 1805 Indian cessions opened up large portions of western (Choctaw) and northern (Chickasaw and Cherokee) Alabama to white settlers.
41 1811 Tecumseh visits the Creek Indians living in what will become Georgia and Alabama to try to persuade them to join his fight against the flood of white settlers. Some towns join forces with Tecumseh and become known as "Red Sticks".
42 1812 The Creek tribes in southern Alabama and Georgia find themselves under increasing pressure from white settlers. Led by Chief Weatherford, they accepted an alliance with Tecumseh and are nicknamed "Red Sticks".
43 1813 Two battles begin the Creek Indian War: (1) Fort Mims Massacre - Fort Mims is attacked on August 13 by the Red Sticks while the inhabitants are eating their noon meal. The massacre brings an immediate response from the whites and soldiers are recruited from Tennessee, Georgia and other territories, and (2) The Battle of Holy Ground on December 1813.
43 1813 During 1813-14, Muskogee-speaking Creeks leave AL and move into areas in Northern FL in response to the Creek Civil War (also known as the Red-sticks War).
44 1814 The Treaty of Fort Jackson is finalized on August 9, 1814. William Weatherford (Red Eagle) surrenders to Gen. Andrew Jackson and cede their lands to the federal government. This opens approximately half of present-day AL to white settlement.
44 1814 Battle at Horseshoe Bend on March 27, leaves the Creek Red Sticks scattered and unorganized. Those that survive the battle flee south into northern Florida and band together as the Seminoles. Red Eagle (Billy Weatherford) surrenders to General Andrew Jackson at Fort Jackson later in the year.
47 1817 Alabama Territory is created when Congress passes an act to divide the Mississippi Territory and admit it into the union as a state. Alabama will remain a territory for two more years.
49 1819 Alabama admitted to the United States
65 1835 Alabama gold rush begins in the east-centrl hill country.
67 1837 The Second Creek war begins in 1836. In 1837 The Battle of Hobdy's Bridge becomes the last indian battle in AL.
70 1840 Alabama reports a total population of 590,756 on the 1940 Federal Census. This includes 335,185 whites, 255,571 blacks, 253,532 slaves, zero Native Americans, and others.
80 1850 State population=771,623. The 1850 Federal Census reveals the White population=426,514; African-American population=345,109; Slave population=342,844; Free black population=2,265; Urban population=35,179; Rural population=736,444; Cotton production in bales=564,429; Corn production in bushels=28,754,048; Number of manufacturing establishments=1,026.
AgeDateEvent
7 1777 The concept of chemical compounds is conceived by Lavoisier
13 1783 The hot air balloon is invented by Michel and Montgolfier and the first people in modern history fly at an altitude of 1800 m.
15 1785 The power loom was invented by Cartwright to produce cloth.
23 1793 The cotton gin was invented by Whitney.
29 1799 The Rosetta Stone was discovered
30 1800 The first battery was invented by Volta
37 1807 The first steamboat was invented by Fulton
44 1814 The first locomotive engine was created by Stephenson
60 1830 The first railroad is constructed between Liverpool and Manchester, England
69 1839 Goodyear invents vulcanized rubber, opening the door for tires and other rubber products.
74 1844 The first telegraph message is sent by Morse, who later invents the Mores Code
83 1853 The process of creating steel is invented by Besermer in Britain and Kelly in the U.S.
86 1856 The first Neanderthal fossils are found near Germany
89 1859 Charles Darwin publishes "Origin of Species" and begins the evolution theory.
AgeDateEvent
5 1775 NEWS HEADLINES: On April 18th, Paul Revere makes his famous ride proclaiming "The British are Coming" and the American Revolution War begins. Britain hires 29,000 German mercenaries to handle conflict in North America.
6 1776 NEWS HEADLINES: July 4th, American Revolution War ends and the United States of America is officially created.
30 1800 NEWS HEADLINES: Seat of U.S. government moves from Philadelphia to Washington DC
41 1811 NEWS HEADLINES: Tecumseh's emerging Indian Confederacy is defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in Ohio. Afterwards, Tecumseh and his brother travel from their Shawnee homes in the north to recruit and unify the southern Indians.
42 1812 NEWS HEADLINES: War of 1812 begins and will continue for until 1814. Some call it the Second War of Independence because the US fights Great Britain to a stalemate, Americas independence was assured.
58 1828 God is discovered in Georgia.
64 1834 July 9 - The S.S. John Randolph, the first successful iron steamship, is launched in Savannah
91 1861 NEWS HEADLINES: American Civil war begins at Ft. Sumter, located in Charleston Harbor, VA.
92 1862 NEWS HEADLINES: May 20, 1862 the US government passes the Homestead Act to provide cheap land for settlement of lower Southeast and West.
AgeDateEvent
3 1773 Angered by the tea tax of 1767 and the British East India Company's monopoly on tea trade, the independent New England colonial merchants dump the precious cargo overboard into the Boston harbor. This incident is called the Boston Tea Party.
4 1774 The First Continental Congress of fifty-five representatives (except from the colony of Georgia) meets in Philadelphia to discuss relations with Britain, the possibility of independence, and the hope of a peaceful solution. King George III scorns the thought of reconciliation and declares the colonies to be in a state of open rebellion.
5 1775 On April 18th, Paul Revere makes his famous ride proclaiming "The British are Coming" and the American Revolution War begins. Britain hires 29,000 German mercenaries to handle conflict in North America.
6 1776 July 4th, American Revolution War ends and the United States of America is officially created.
8 1778 Alliance between United States and France
17 1787 Constitution of the United States is signed
23 1793 Alexander McGillivray, the head of the Creek Indian Nation, dies. A restlessness begins to grow among the Indians in what is now Georgia, Alabama and Northern Florida as town chiefs via for the vacant leadership role.
24 1794 The United States establishes the Navy
28 1798 Mississippi Territory organized from Georgia's western land claims. It includes what will later become portions of Mississippi, Alabama and Northern Florida,
33 1803 Louisiana Purchase from France (who secured it from Spain) gives the US a huge new territory and the port of New Orleans.
34 1804 The Seminole warrior later known as Osceola is born near Tuskegee, AL.
35 1805 Federal Road project begins after the Creek Indians give the U.S. permission to develop a “horse path” through their nation that will provide better mail delivery between Washington City (DC) and New Orleans. Soon settlers are traveling and settling along this path to settle the southern frontier.
36 1806 Lewis and Clark Expedition, which began in 1804, ends. News of the rich lands to the west begins to spread.
41 1811 By 1811 the new "Federal Road" (which started as a horse path) is filled with a steady flow of white settlers into Creek Indian Territories. The Spanish begin to fan hostile sentiments among the Indians.
50 1820 The Act of April 24, 1820 abolished the land purchase credit system, fixed the price of public lands at $1.25 per acre, and set the minimum purchase at 80 acres. After a person purchased land, a final certificate was issued by the land office and sent to Washington DC to be verified and signed by the President -- a time consuming process. Public lands were most typically available through US treaties with Indians who agreed to be removed from their homelands.
60 1830 Indian Removal Act signed and the moving of eastern Indians west of the Mississippi begins.
65 1835 Second Seminole Indian War begins.
67 1837 The trickery used to capture Seminole Indian Chief Osceola (Assi Yohola) creates a public uproar and U.S. General Jesup is publicly condemned.
70 1840 Oregon Trail is established
72 1842 Second Seminole Indian War ends and thousands of Seminole Indians are forced to move west of the Mississippi.
85 1855 Third Seminole Indian War begins. It ends three years later when Chief Billy Bowlegs and his band are forced to move from Florida.
90 1860 Presidential election puts Abraham Lincoln in office. The campaign has heated the issues regarding slavery in the south.
92 1862 May 20, 1862 the US government passes the Homestead Act to provide cheap land for settlement of lower Southeast and West.
93 1863 Abraham Lincoln issues the "Emancipation Proclamation" freeing slaves.
AgeDateEvent
9 1779 Spain declares war on England
10 1780 Josef II abolishes serfdom in Hungary; England declares war on Holland
13 1783 Peace established at Versailles between France, England, Spain and United States; Britain cedes all lands west to the Mississippi River
17 1787 Catherine the Great leads Russia into war with Turkey
18 1788 Russia begins war with Sweden
19 1789 French feudal system is abolished with the Declaration of Rights of Man. Outbreak of hostilities in France with the fall of the Bastille on July 14; Revolution in Austrian Netherlands declares independence as Belgium
22 1792 French Revolutionary Wars begin and the French royal family is imprisoned the following year
23 1793 Marie Antoinette is executed; Fugitive Slave Act passed; Roman Catholic faith is banned in France; France declares war on Britain and Holland.
25 1795 White Terror and bread riots in Paris
26 1796 Napoleon marries Josephine de Beauharnais
27 1797 Napoleon proclaims the Venetian Constitution, founds Ligurian Republic in Genoa
63 1833 Santa Anna is elected President of Mexico


Marriages
John Ward
Born about 1770 and died about 1813
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The Children of Nahoga Mahala Moniac

John Grady Ward
Born somewhere in South Carolina about 1794 and died somewhere in Alabama about 1825. He was about 31 years old.

Believed to be John Grady Ward. He married and had two children born in Alabama about 1820 and 1822....
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James Benjamin Ward
Born somewhere in South Carolina about 1796 and died in Dale County, Alabama about 1862. He was about 66 years old.

The 'Monroe Letter' says James was part Irish and Tuskegee Creek Indian. However, this has not been completely proven and much controversy exists about his parents. The fact that he and his parents ...
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